The spontaneous city is certainly not only the domain of local authorities. Indeed, our experience is that property developers often take the lead in approaching areas from a new angle. Think, for example, of the role of housing association Stadgenoot in the Oostenburg district of Amsterdam, railway stations for Cartesius in Utrecht, or ERA contour in the Cable Factory in Delft. They see that a gradual development throws up opportunities for an area. Step-by-step development, with space for many parties, results in an area with more character and diversity. And that translates into increased value.