Many local authorities and regional alliances struggle with the implications of the spontaneous city and a retreating government for spatial policy. What plans need to be developed for centres, neighbourhoods, cities and regions?
The substance of an urban vision cannot be viewed separately from the role that a local authority envisages for itself. A facilitatory or inviting authority calls for other controlling mechanisms: deregulation where possible, provision of space for the unexpected, and tight frameworks where needed. New visions must contain a perspective, without being dogmatic and all-powerful. Defining a vision at this scale does of course call for smart, co-creative processes with all sorts of parties: from residents to policy-makers.